- Narrative or a story is a way of meaning and events can be structured and organised over time.
- Narratives can be applied in fatal and fictional events.
- They apply to all media forms.
- Stories are told in differing ways across differing media
- Pictures can have narrative meaning behind it
- Vladimir Propp
- Tzvetan Todorov
- Roland Barthes
- Claude Levi-Strauss
- Studied many examples of russan folk tales.
- He identified that all characters and actions can be grouped into 8 characters roles
Character who is against the hero.
Character who is seeking something. Motivated by an initial lack of something. morally good.
Provides an object with some magical / key property
Helps the hero
The reward for the hero
- Father of Princess
rewarder of the hero
Sends the hero on an initial quest
- False hero
Appears to be of good intention, but may aid the villain.
(Good example of this theory is “Monkey Island”)
- Suggested narratives can be based around equlibriam
- Equilibrium – Opposing forces are balanced
- Recognition of disruption
- Attempt to repair the disruption
- A new equilibrium is established
Roland Barthes: 1915 – 1980
- Barthes suggested that narratives can have not just one, but many threads.
- There are no beginnings or endings, but multiple points with the same narrative.
- Hermeneutic / Enigma
Hermeneutic / Enigma
- Mystery elements within the narratives
- clues may be given
- No clear answerrs are given to the mysteries
- can frustrate the audience when not resolved
- Sequential actions that lead to suspense within a narrative
- Expectations are established
- Referencing to additional meaning within a narrative
- New meaning arise through conflicting ideas
- comparing two ideas to hi light which is the correct choice.
- Elements of the narrative that are base on truths that cannot be questioned
- assumed cultural knowledge
Crude Levi – Strauss
- Theorised that all meanings not just those within narrative are based upon ‘ binary Opposition’.
- e.g Good vs Evil, Sane vs Insane, uS and Them.
- The narrative can gave different meanings based upon a particular viewpoint.